Assaults, sports and traffic accidents can cause a craniofacial fracture that needs to be surgically treated by a maxillofacial surgeon. By approaches inside the oral cavity, or upper and lower blepharoplasty or through incisions in the scalp fractures can be treated without leaving any visible scar.
The most common fracture of the face is in the nose which may require a secondary rhinoplasty if it is not treated initially.
When the mandible or maxilla are fractured it is usually manifested by an alteration in the occlusion of the teeth because they don't occlude properly. It can also be associated to dental or dentoalveolar fractures, functional impotence in the temporomandibular joint or nerve injury.
A fracture often seen in sport accidents is the cheekbone (malar or zygomatic bone) that manifests with sinking producing an asymmetry and a cosmetic defect.
Fractures of the orbit usually produce double vision and a limitation of eye movements. Treatment involves repositioning the orbital contents and rebuild the walls of the orbit through approaches such as blepharoplasty.